Vol. 62, No. 6, 2001

Correlations of spatio-temporal ranges in ecological hierarchies of various nature A.I. Azovsky

A new approach to modeling of diversity dynamics in Phanerozoic marine biota A. V. Markov

Genetic and evolutionary basis of symbiosis doctrine N. A. Provorov

Myrmecochorous syndrome E. V. Gorb, S. N. Gorb

Structure and functioning of pelagic zooplankton in the lakes ot different types on the example of small lakes from North-West Russia M. B. Ivanovo

Correlations of Spatio-temporal Ranges in Ecological Hierarchies of Various Nature

A. I. Azovsky

Department of Hydrobiology, Biological Faculty, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow University, Vorob'evy Gory. Moscow 119899, Russia e-mail: azovsky@hydro.bio.msu.ru

Relations between characteristic scales of time and space are analyzed for the hierarchical systems of a various nature. The available data fit well to the power relation: [T] = a[L]1', where [T] and [L] are characteristic ranges of time and space, b - scaling exponent, a - conversion coefficient. The spatio-temporal scales of ocean physical and biological (pelagic) processes are closely overlapped. Contrastingly, the scale for terrestrial and benthic ecosystems and their environments differ noticeably. For terrestrial and benthic ecological systems, and also for atmospheric phenomena, the b values significantly less than 1, that indicates a significant coherence of structure-generating processes integrating lower-level hierarchical units to a higher-level entity. For geomorpholog-ical structures, both terrestrial and oceanic, the scaling parameters has appeared close to 1 (a "direct transfer" type of generating processes). For plankton systems, which are related with water masses, the b values vary from 1 (processes of direct transfer) up to 2 (random dispersal or diffusion processes). The author attributes this difference to the principle distinctions in dynamic properties of the physical environments for terrestrial (and probably, benthic) and plankton organisms. Finally, for the units (structures or processes) of one and the same organization level, scaling exponents are singnificantly higher and close to 2 (diffusive dynamics) or more (rigid spatial limitation). Thus, the development of many ecological structures looks dynamically like diffusion or gradual growth, but their putting in the higher-level order (integrity) is a qualitative leap forward and demands appropriate cooperative organizational processes.

A New Approach to Modeling of Diversity Dynamics in Phanerozoic Marine Biota

A. V. Markov

Paleontological Institute Russian Academy of Science, Profsoyuznaya ul. 123, Moscow 117647, Russia. e-mail: naimarkov@mtu-net.ru

Modeling of fossil diversity dynamics is usually done with the help of the models borrowed from the population dynamics theory. However there are principal differences between organisms and taxa, reproduction and divergence, mortality and extinction that make this approach doubtful. Another model is presented here, in which absolute origination rate does not depend on diversity, the ability of new genera to sustain unpredictable environmental changes increases three times abruptly at Cambrian/Ordovician, Permian/Triassic and Cretaceous/Tertiary boundaries. In this model the diversity increases due to accumulation of long-lived genera. The computer simulation showed that the model agrees with empirical data by 15 major criteria. The laws of community evolution apparently can explain the general pattern of punctuated equilibrium in the evolution of marine biota.

Genetic and Evolutionary Basis of Symbiosis Doctrine

N. A. Provorov

Institute of Agricultural Microbiology, Podbelskogo shosse 3, Pushkin-8, St.-Petersburg 196608, Russia e-inail:nik4@newmail.ru

The author presents the current notion of symbiosis as one of the main adaptation of an organism to changeable environment. Symbiosis is considered as a super organism genetic system within which there are different interactions (including mutualism and antagonism). Genetic integration of symbiotic partners can be realized as cross regulation of their genes, exchange of gene products (proteins, RNA), gene amplification and sometimes gene transfer between organisms. On the phenotypic level these processes result in signal interactions, integration of partner metabolic systems and development of symbiotic organs. Co-evolution is considered as an as- semblage of micro- and macroevolution processes basing on pre-adaptations and proceeding under influence of different forms of natural selection (individual, frequency-depended and kin selection). Symbiosis can be compared with sexual process since both are the forms of organism integration characterized by different genetic mechanisms and evolutionary consequences. The genome evolution in symbiotic microorganisms can proceed by: 1) simplification of genome in obligate symbiosis (loss of genes that are necessary for independent existence, transfer of some genes to the host organism); 2) complication of genome in facultative symbiosis (increase in genome plasticity, structural and functional differentiation of genome into systems controlling free- living and symbiotic parts of life cycle). Most of symbiotic interactions are correlated to an increase in genetic plasticity of an organism that can lead to evolutionary saltations and origin of new forms of life.

Myrmecochorous Syndrome

E. V. Gorb, S. N. Gorb*

*Kiev National University, Vladimirskaja ul. 64, Kiev 01017, Ukraine **Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Khmelnitskogo ul. 15, Kiev 01030, Ukraine e-mail: stas.gorb@tuebingen.mpg.de

Myrmecochorous plants have a set of morphological, anatomical, biochemical and phenological features connected to ant dispersal. This complex of plant adaptations is called myrmecochorous syndrome. Present review is based on literature data and original field and laboratory experiments of the authors. The diversity of plant adaptations and its role for ant attraction are analysed. The main feature of myrmecochorous syndrome is elaio-some (a fat body) connected with diaspore. Elaiosomes differ by shape, colours, size, anatomy and origin. Different parts of ovule, pericarp or even flower may serve as an initial tissue for elaiosome origin. Fats of elaio- some have a particular complex of fat acids, mainly 1,2-diolein, that attract ant workers. Seed setting periods, synchronizing with maximum ant activity, strictly determined size of diaspores also help in ant attraction. If a plant is not obligate myrmecochore and has some additional mechanism for diaspore dispersal, some characters of myrmecochorous syndrome may be absent or less expressed.

Structure and Functioning of Pelagic Zooplankton in the Lakes of Different Types on the Example of Small Lakes from North-West Russia

M. B. Ivanova

Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Universitetskaya nab. 1, St.-Petersburg, 199034 Russia; e-mail: admin@zin.ru

Changes of structure and functining of pelagic zooplankton under lake eutrophication were studied in a group of small (without outlet) lakes in southern Karelia and Leningrad region. The lakes were morphologically similar and located within the same climatic zone. Differences in their trophic status were connected with anthropogenic eutrophication. Correlation between species number and feeding resources of a lake is determined as:

Y = (8.01 +- 3.85) + (0.29 +- 0.07)X1 + (6.75 +- 1.52)X2, r^2 = 0.95, (1)

Y- number of zooplankton species, Xi - average chlorophyll concentration for the season, mg/1; X^ - average value of biochemical oxygen demand (expressed in mgC/1). Average biomass of zooplankton for season also depends on food:

logY = (-0.054 +- 0.224) + (0.242 +- 0.094)logX1 + (0.170 +- 0.179)logX2, n = 13, r^2 = 0.87, (2)

Y- average zooplankton biomass for the season, kcal/m3, X1 and X2 the same as (1). Increase in species number and zooplankton bimass determined primarily by Rotatoria occur in parallel to chlorophyll concentration and activity of bacteria. In acid lakes rotifers are not important in energy balance. In mezotrophic lakes two main energy paths are formed - through rotifers and through Crustacea. The role of rotifers is extremely important in eutrophic lakes where about 80% of energy paths through them. The ratio community production to energy consumption for the growing season is also depended on the community structure (species number, equitability, connectence):

Y = (2.257 +- 0.026) - (0.368 +- 0.031 )X1 + (5.160 +- 0.442)X2, r^2 = 0.99, (3)

Y- average seasonal production of zooplankton, kcal/m2; X1 - maximal meaning of Shannon index (bites), calculated on biomass value; X2 - connectence of the community, calculated according Briand (1983). Eutroph-ication changes the stability of lakes relative to external influences, while low productive lakes are very sensitive to the increase in nutrient load, high productive lakes are more influenced by changes in fish predation.