Vol. 62, No. 5, 2001

Classification of organisms and structuralism in biology L. N. Vasilyeva

The methodology of biological thought in vA Beklemishev's works (1890-1962) E. B. Muzrukova, L. V. Tchesnova

The appication of the generalized golden section raw to study of brachiopod and clam shells A. V. Lukash

On biological essence of golden section M. S. Radyuk

Self-recovery of plant communities: examples, mechanisms, and approaches for description I. B. Kucherov, A. T. Zaghidullina

On morphological diversity of colonies ofPandorina morum (Mull.) Bory (Volvocaceae) Yu. L. Voytehovsky

Behavioural reactions of Bufo bufo tadpoles to chemical excretes of conspecific adult toad and its changes in ontogeny E. I. Kiseleva

Scientific discussions

Geometrization of biological ideas: probabilistic model of evolution

V. V. Nalimov

Classification of Organisms and Structuralism in Biology

L. N. Vasilyeva

Institure of Biology and Soil Science, Russian Academy of Science, Far East Branch, prospekt 100-letya Vladivostoka 159, Vladivostok 690022, Russia

Structuralism in biology is the oldest trend oriented to the search for natural "laws of forms" comparable with laws of growth of crystal, was revived at the end of 20th centure on the basis of structuralist thought in socio-humanitarian sciences. The development of principal ideas of the linguistic structuralism in some aspects is similar to that of biological systematics, expecially concerning the relationships between "system" and "evolution". However, apart from this general similarity, biological structuralism is strongly focused on familiar problems of the origin of diversity in nature. In their striving for the renovation of existing views, biological structuralists oppose the neo-darwinism emphasizing the existence of "law of forms", that are independent on heredity and genetic "determinism". The trend to develop so-called "rational taxonomy" is also characteristic of biological structuralism but this attempt failled being connected neither with Darwin's historicism nor with Plato's typology. The Methodology of Biological Thought in V.N. Beklemischev's Works (1890-1962)

E. B. Muzrukova, L. V. Tchesnova

Institute of History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Science, Staropansky per. 115 Moscow 103012, Russia e-mail: postmaster@ history, inst.ru

During his work in Perm University (1918-1932) Vladimir Nikolaevich Beklemishev created theoretical and methodological foundations for the concepts of constructive morphology and structure of the living cover of the Earth. His conclusions about topical problems of general biology are still valuable for biological thinking. The Appiicatfofi oftfie Generalized Colden Section Raw to Study of Brachiopod and Qam Shell

L V. Lukash

Dept. of Invertebrate Zoology, Biological Faculty, . V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob'evy Gory, Moscow 119899, Russia

Symmetry of shells of clams (Veneridae: Katelysia, Venus, Periglypta; Fimbriidae: Corhis fimbriata) and chioipods (Cancrinella undata, Echinoconhus punctatus, Reticulatia inflatiformis and Neophricodothms waageni) was studied geometrically with spiral symmetry and connected mathematical methods (complex proportions and Fibonacci numbers). Location regularity of the elements ofconcentrical sculpture connecte(f 41)1 shell growth is interpreted as unrolling of logarithmic spiral in the process of growth. Correlations of radius of sculpture circles were studied with the raw of generalized golden sections of V.I. Korobko and G.N. Primak The discovered regularities of circles location being similar to some peculiarities ofphyllotaxis are govc ned by the rules of the raw of generalized golden sections. Two spiral folds could keep correspondence between the increase in mass of growing animal and the increase in intensity of water drawing by ciliate apparatus.

On Biological Essence of Golden Section

M. S. Radyuk

Institute of Photobiology, National Academy of Science, Akademicheskaya ul. 27, Minsk 220072, Belarus e-mail:kabash@biobel.bas-net.by

Using the examples ofphyllotaxis and the process of graduated development of plant photosynthetic apparatus the author shows that the principle of golden section is an implication of the principle of optimal construction (maximal simplicity). The principle of optimal construction is characterized by minimum of numerical relations between integer and its pans, that indicate the fractal character of studied objects and processes organized according to the golden section principle.

Self-recovery of Plant Communities: Examples, Mechanisms, and Approaches for Description

I. B. Kucherov, A. T. Zaghidiillina

Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Prof. Popov ul. 2, St.-Petersburg ! 97376. Russia e-mail: kucherov@lK6026.spb.edu

Autogenic (self-recovering) plant communities that need no transitional stages of succession for their recovery after damage are widespread in different areas of the Globe. They are typical for tundras, but also common in boreal forests, alpine belts, deserts and Mediterranean biomes. Such communities usually dominate the landscape. The authors examine in details the communities of cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum) wet tussock tundras of North-Eastern Asia and Alaska, the dryad (Dryas punctata) lichen dry patchy tundras of the same region and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) lichen-feathermoss forests on fluvial-glacial deposits of Fennoscandia and Russian Plain. Although authogenic plant communities are serial, they exist side by side with proper edaph-ic variants of climaxes but don't appear to be replaced by the latter, being even more stable. Moreover, they even seem to "compete" for the space with the climax communities. Stabilization of autogenic communities is primarily induced by the impact of abiotic disturbance factors, like periodic fires, permafrost action or scree sliding, and afterwards maintained by several mechanisms of community structure organization. Such mechanisms of self-recovery act at the levels of both plant population and community as a whole. Specific adaptions of dominant species to typical kinds of disturbance (at a scale of either the community, or its local parts) illus- trate the first level, whereas close co-adaptations between dominants and accompanying species refer to the second one. Such co-adaptations are present as complementarity of plant life strategies and growth forms within a community and/or as a shifting-mosaic steady state which leads to quick recovery of local disturbances. Among different possible approaches to simulation of community autogenesis those of combinatorial simulation seem to be especially perspective.

On Morphological Diversity of Colonies of Pandorina morum (Miill.) Bory (Volvocaceae)

Yu. L. Voytekhovsky

Geological Institute, Kol'sky Scientific Centrum of Russian Academy of Science, Fersmana ul. 14, Apatity 184209, Russia e-mail: voyt@geoksc.apatity.ru

Morphological variability of polyhedral colonies of green algae (Volvocaceae) were studied using some elements of combinative theory of polyhedron and the theory of diophantine equations. These colonies are considered as results of self-organization according to topological regularities of sphere dissection by convex polygons. It was shown that in three-dimensional Euclidean space for each colony of Pandorina morum (Mull.) Bory only three different forms are possible. One of them has no plane of symmetry and, thus, has two en;r" 'morphous varieties. It is suggested that frequency spectrum of forms can be used as potential indicator nn nonment pollution.

Geometrization of Biological Ideas: Probabilistic Model of Evolution

V. V. Nalimov

Biological Faculty, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob'evy Gory, Moscow 119899, Russia

The paper deals with mathematical explication of such fundamental notions of theoretical biology as space of morphological properties, proper time, diversity of forms and phenomena, spontaneous changes. The author developed a notionally geometrical picture of the animate world. A probabilistic approach is used to describe the process of evolution, whose mechanism is given by the Bayesian syllogism. It is shown how the Bayesian approach can formally describe evulutionary changes of the whole pattern of properties. The author discusses some ideas dealing with the possibility of constructing a general field theory, embracing both such phenomena taht are beyond the framework of physical science.