Vol. 63, No. 3, 2002

(Indexed in "Current Contents")

Molecular evidence of regress in evolution of Metazoa V. V. Aleshin, N. B. Petrov

A case tongueworms (Pentastomida): a peculiar problem in context of the modem phylogenetics A. V. Tchesunov

On similarities and differences between morphological concepts of Linnaeus and Goethe

|V. V. Korona|

Once again about "Gregg paradox" and its solution E. V. Mavrodiev

Energy balance of a plant under normal and unfavourable conditions Z. F. Rakhmankulova

The problem of durable resistance of plants to different pests /. G. Odintsova, E. E. Radchenko, L. G. Tyryshkin

Natural toxins in inter- and intraspecific interaction of human being (elements of ethnotoxinology) D. B. Gelaschvili

Reviews

On the monograph "Estimation and conservation of biological variability of tree cover nature reserves of European Russia"

B. M. Mirkin, V. B. Martynenko. L. G. Naumova

Molecular Evidence of Regress in Evolution of Metazoa

V. V. Aleshin, N. B. Petrov

A.V. Belozersky Institute of Physico-chemical Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, Russia e-mail:petr@belozersky.msu.ru

Molecular data permit to construct phylogenetic trees independently of morphological characters. It allows consider their evolution without the frames of a priori hypothesis of regularities of morphological evolution a independently of palaeontological data. Cladistic analysis of elements of secondary structure of variable are V7 and V2 in 18S rRNA with different Protozoa as "external" groups shows that Bilateria + Cnidaria are mor phyletic, Ctenophora and Porifera are early derivatives of Metazoa, Trichoplax (Placozoa) is a form related Cnidaria, while Rhombozoa, Orthonectida and Myxozoa were branched within Bilateria. Morphological redi tion with losses of any organs and tissues took place many times in early evolution of Metazoa and Bilateria i only in parasitic species. It occurred both at early and late stages of embryonic development and differentiatk Two alternative scenario of morphological degeneration in Trichoplax and the way of their testing are suggested. The similarity of Ctenophora and Calcarea is discussed. Meridional or oblique position of the third clea-M'a furrow of ovule can be considered as an evidence of their origin from common ancestor.

A Case of Tongueworms (Pentastomida): a Peculiar Problem in Context of the Modern Phylogenetics

A. V. Tchesunov

Dep. Systematics, Comparative Anatomy and Ecology of Invertebrate Animals, Biological Faculty, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow University, Moscow 9899, Russia e-mail:tchesunov@mtu-net.ru

A short essay on anatomy, ultrastructure and larval development, life cycles, classification, palaeontology and phylogenetic relationships of Pentastomida is given. Currently, the Pentastomida are usually placed within Crustacea, as sister group of Branchiura (Crustacea, Maxillopoda). The grounds are striking similarities in ul-trastructures of spermatozoa and congruence in the 18S rRNA nucleotide sequence. Both taxa are however sharply disparate in all other characters concerning morphology, embryology, life cycles and geological history. A direct introduction of Pentastomida in the system of Crustacea implies an unjustified inflation of the tax- onomic diagnosis of the latter group; hence it is unacceptable. Two alternative hypotheses are suggested as tentative phylogenetic relationships to be tested. Each hypothesis infers however a very complex and unlikely evolutionary scenario. 1) Pentastomida and Branchiura are true sister groups as justified by coincidence in spermatozoan ultrastructure and sequence of ribosomal RNA. Since then- divergence, the evolutions of pentas-tomids and branchiurans ran in different milieus, in different shapes and with different rates. To present time, the pentastomids lost nearly all characters of maxillopods and crustaceans as well as majority of anthropod features. 2) Pentastomida and Branchiura are not close related. The similarity in ultrastructural details of spermatozoa may be occasional or resulted from convergent evolution with unknown factors. Coincidence in nucleotide sequences or ribosomal RNA should be reexamined and tested with other pentastomid species. The second hypothesis seems to be more likely.

On Similarities and Differences Between Morphological Concepts of Linnaeus and Goethe

V. V. Korona

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural branch of Russian Academy of Science, 8 March ul 202, Ekaterinburg 620144, Russia

Analysis of C. Linnaeus' and J.W. Goethe's morphological ideas shows that they both deal with structure of object under study however Linnaeus understood it perceptive structure while Goethe as its proper structure. Perceptive structure is an image (Gestalt) formed in observer's mind and recognized by the discriminating traits. The proper object structure is composed of its morphological elements, that can be distinguished only by a special study of their transformations. Notion of the plants modular construction originated within Goethe's ideas about plant morphology. We cannot expect any remarkable advances in modular theory as well in the descriptive and constructive morphology until conceptual differences between these two approaches will be understood.

Once Again About "Gregg Paradox" and its Solution

E. V. Mavrodiev

Theological Faculty, Svyato-Sergiev Orthodox University, Chapaev ul. 26, Volgograd 400012, Russia e-mail: evgeny@interdacom.ru

"Gregg paradox" means that monotypical groups containing the same species (or groups of species) will be equal each other although systematics considers them as different taxa. Thus if the order ofplacental mammalia Tubilidentata includes one species aardvark Orycteropus afer, the order itself, its single family Orycteropodi-aceae, single genus of the family Orycteropus and the single species Orycteropus afer can be considered as equal to each other. To solve this disagreement the author asserts that taxa of any level can be regarded as an individual according to the taxa of higher rank. Possibility of such interpretation was already suggested by Georg Cantor (1985). He supposed that a set (class) can be regarded as unity by itself. In this case connections between taxa of different levels can be realized by Peano ratio of intrasitive conformities. In this model a genus will consist of species but not individuals, a type - of classes, etc. Thus, if a taxon x as an individual is an element of taxon y, and taxon v as an individual is an element of taxon :, then : according to x will be not only logical class, but class of classes and, hence we could not consider x as an element of ;, because the latter consists of indecomposable individual-class v or some similar classes. In this situation "Gregg paradox" does not arise.

Energy Balance of a Plant under Normal and Unfavourable Conditions

Z. F. Rakhmankulova

Dept. Plant Physiology, Biological Faculty, Bashkirsky State University, Frunze ul. 32, Ufa 450074, Russia e-mail: ZulfiraR@mail.ru

Two main components of plant energy balance are analyzed - photosynthesis and dark respiration. Different plant species, growing in optimal conditions and differing in photosynthetic metabolism, productivity and potential resistance to stress, have constant ratio between total dark respiration and grossphotosynthesis. The ratio about 38^10% at the phase of active growth. This value reflect plant state, when income (assimilation) is maximized, and expense (total oxidation) is minimized. Intensities of dark respiration of plants in darkness and light are similar despite the fact that the plants have considerable differences: 1) different carbon sources - young assimilates in light and reserve ones in the dark; 2) biochemical modifications (or inhibition) of some stages of dark respiration in light; 3) intensification of alternative respiration in unfavourable conditions differing in dark and light variants. Ratio between intensity of dark respiration and photosynthesis increases in plants growing in unfavourable conditions. This increase is more considerable in plants that are less resistant to the given stress. Characters of energy balance can be used for estimation of physiological status of plants, prediction of resistance and potential productivity at seedling stage.

The Problem of Durable Resistance of Plants to Different Pests

I. G. Odintsova, E. E. Radchenko, L. G. Tyryshkin

Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry, B. Morskaya 44, St.-Petersburg 190000, Russia e- mail: radch@NA84l8.spb.edu

Different hypotheses concerning durable plant resistance against different pest were tested: 1) resistance is weak and polygenetically controlled; 2) resistance depends on "residual effect" of oligogenes that were overcome by pests. Contrast pair of plants and pests were used in experiments: wheat, barley - facultative parasite Bipolaris sorokiniana Shoem., wheat - obligate parasite Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm., sorghum - green-bug Schi:aphis graminum Rond. Differential interaction between parasite and host plant resulted in their increased compatibility under long reproduction of parasite on resistant varietes were regarded as criteria of quick overcoming of resistance. The results did not support any hypothesis. The rate of adaptation ofB. sorokiniana to the resistant varietes of wheat and barley did not depend on the level of resistance expression (weak, moderate or strong) and genetic control (oligogenic, polygenic or cytoplasmatic). It was shown by hybridological analysis that "residual effect" of oligogenes of sorghum resistance against greenbug depended on small resistance genes, that can be independent or weakly connected with marker oligogene. These data allows to doubt in phe- nomenon of "residual effect" of oligogenes. It was shown that non specific pathogenicity of parasitic fungi increased during their reproductions on sensitive varietes of plants. Thus, cultivation of sensitive varietes causes damage of crop culture non only because of their own losses, but also by increasing the infection of moderately resistant varietes.

Natural Toxins in Inter- and Intraspecific Interaction of Human Being (Elements of Ethnotoxinology)

D. B. Gelashvili

Dept. Ecology, Biological Faculty, N.I. Lobachevsky State University, Prospect Gagarina 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603600, Russia e-mail: ecology@unn.ac.ru

The author considers the application of natural toxins as arrow poison by Homo sapiens from ancient time till today for hunting and ethnic wars on the example of natives of Asia, Africa, South America and Oceania. Geographic isolation was important determining the spectrum of natural toxin sources and the methods of their application. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of arrow poisons effects are considered in biogeographical context: aconitin and strychnin in Asia, diamphotoxin in Africa, indole alcaloids of plants and steroid alcaloids of amphibian in Central and South America, palytoxin in Oceania islands. High effeciency and selective effect of natural toxins allow to use them as molecular markers in current studies of functional membrane architecture and cellular structures. Great differences in pace of civilization development leads to the co- existence at the beginning of the XXI century ethnic groups that use natural toxins as arrow poison and human beings that use the same toxins in fundamental and applied investigations within international scientific society.