Journal of General Biology

Volume 62 (2001). Number 3

(Indexed in "Current Contents")

K.P.Ivanov. Biological problems of origin and development of some physiological functions (Theory and applications)

E.A.Gileva, D.Yu.Nohrin. Chromosomal and ontogenetic instability in sibling species of common vole (group of Microtus arvalis): comparative aspects

T.Ya.Sitnikova, M.N.Shimaraev. Deep-water dwarfs and giants among endemic Baikal gastropods

M.G.Sadovsky. "Prey - predator model" with purposeful migration of individuals

I.A.Schepetkin, M.A.Sergejev. Geometry model of spiral-cyclical self-organization of morphofunctional modules with two-dimensional transfer channels

Yu.V.Tyutyunov, N.Yu.Sapukhina, A.B.Morgulis, V.N.Govorukhin. Mathematical model of active migrations as feeding strategy in trophic communities

S.A.Balandin, I.M.Kalinichenko. Electronic publications and their bibliographic description (on the example of botanical electronic information resources)

Review

B.M.Mirkin. On the book of V.N.Tutubabin, Yu.M.Barabasheva, A.A.Grigiryan, G.N.Devyatkova, E.G.Uger "Mathematical modeling in ecology: historical and methodological analysis"


K.P.Ivanov

Biological problems of origin and development of some physiological functions (Theory and applications)

Lab. Bioenergetic and Termoregulation, I.P.Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Science, nab. Makarova 6, St.-Petersburg 199034, Russia

The author presents some idea about origin and development of some physiological functions: outer breathing, breath function of blood, blood circulation, termoregulation, energy supply. The conclusions about main directions of evolution of these functions and duration of their development in phylogeny were drawn. The author gave some examples of abrupt changes of development of these functions in different groups of animals and discussed possible reasons of such changes. General quantitative estimation of the results of evolution of these functions from the position of their summurized efficiency was done. Quantitative characteristics of optimization and efficiency limits of physiological functions were suggested on the base of new data in general biology and comparative physiology. The author put toward the hypothesis about conventional "mistakes" of evolution and showed deep biological reasons of some serious illness. The examples of some applied problems in biology, physiology and medicine that can be solved with the data on evolution of physiological functions are presented.

M.G.Sadovsky

"Prey - predator model" with purposeful migration of individuals

Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science

Two species "prey predator model" where the individuals purposefully migrates between two habitats is considered. A migration is regarded as transference from one habitat to another yielding in maximization of average (over two habitats) coefficient of reproduction. Targeted migration results in the increase in average abundance of population comparing with discrete analogies of classic equations of Volterra and also to the enlargement of the area of the admissible meanings of parameters. A great variety of dynamic regimes has been observed, some of them could be interpreted as outbreak explosion.

S.A.Balandin, I.M.Kalinichenko

Electronic publications and their bibliographic description (on the example of botanical electronic information resources)

Dep. Geobotany and Dep. Higher Plants, Biological Faculty, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob'evy Gory, Mscow 119899, Russia

The information on the main Russian and foreign electronic botanical scientific editions on "new", nonconventional data media is presented. The characteristic of the specific terms and concepts indispensable for identification of electronic resources is done. The authors offer the working schemes of bibliographic description of electronic publications in computer networks and on physical data media, design with allowance for Russian and international normatives and recommendation documents. Each scheme is illustrated by concrete examples of botanical electronic publications.

E.A.Gileva, D.Yu.Nohrin

Chromosomal and ontogenetic instability in sibling species of common vole (group of Microtus arvalis): comparative aspects

Populations of chromosomal sibling species Microtus arvalis and Microtus rossiaemeridionalis were studied in Ural region in habitats affected by high radiation and the control ones. Frequency of chromosome disturbances in the marrow cells and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of 8 craniometric characters were investigated. In impact populations the frequency of chromosome aberration was very high. Such frequency was also maintained in the offspring of the first laboratory generation of M. arvalis. In natural and control populations of both species frequently occurred individuals with anomalies in sex chromosome. Individuals of M. rossiaemeridionalis from Totsky radioactive region (forest-steppe zone) were characterized by very high integrative FA in comparison with control populations (southern taiga). At the same time neighboring impact and control populations of M. arvalis from southern taiga did not differ in this character. Despite the high level of caryotype divergence M. arvalis and M. rossiaemeridionalis showed similarity in mutation process that causes chromosome disturbances in somatic and germinative cells. Probably the level of FA of measured characters in both species is connected rather with geographical location than with man influence.

Geometry model of spiral-cyclical self-organization of morphofunctional modules with two-dimensional transfer channels

I.A.Schepetkin, M.A.Sergejev

Oncology Institute, Tomsk 634001, Russia; e-mail: oncology@info.tsu.ru

Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russia

The general model of spiral-cyclic self-organization of morhofunctional modules has been studied with the help of elliptic Riemannian geometry. Depending on the level of hierarchy cells, groups of cells, macromolecules or subcellular components can function as separate biological units. The hierarchically coordinated morphofunctional modules of biological pattern with two-dimensional (2D) channels of morphogenesis transfer are formed in the process of geometric transformation. The width of 2D channel is regulated by module parameters, whereas the direction of transport is controlled by vector of module electrostatic field. The disturbance of morphogenesis in the model is regarded as a change of reciprocal hierarchically coordinated arrangement of morphofunctional modules that causes branching of 2Dchannels without general powerand mass transfer. The model can be used for constructing of concrete analogies of self-organization of morphofunctional modules in ontoand phylogenesis.

T.Ya.Sitnikova, M.N.Shimaraev

Deep-water dwarfs and giants among endemic Baikal gastropods

Limnologcal Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Ulan-Batorskaya ul. 3, Irkutsk 664033, Russia

e-mail: sit@lin.irk.ru

It is suggested that existence of dwarfs and giants among Baikal gastropods depends on several factors. Dwarfs occurs in habitats 1) where sedimentation rate is low and thick silt layer is absent (the small shell devoided of long periostracal nodules does not allow the animal to stay on the soft sediment surface; 2) where these is hard substratum suitable for laying egg capsules; 3) where these is intensive water exchange assuring supply of food (detritus and phytoplankton). Distribution of giants capable to lay egg capsules on their own shells is not confined by availability of hard substratum. They dwell on soft sediments because they have large light shell with high whorl allowing them to migrate on silt surface. Giants live in places with high sedimentation rates, constant supply of food (including died fish), and higher degree of water mineralization. Giants and dwarfs inhabit only oxidized substrates. Neither giants, nor dwarfs inhabit the flat bottom of Baikal. Giants occur on near-slope parts of the lake, while the dwarfs prefer underwater elevations.

Explicit model for searching behavior of predator

Yu.V.Tyutyunov1,2, N.Yu.Sapoukhina1,2,3, I.N.Senina1,2, R.Arditi3

1Department of Mathematical Ecology, Institute of Mechanics & Applied Mathematics, Rostov State University, Stachki ul. 200/1, Rostov-na-Dony 344090, Russia

e-mail: ytyutyun@math.rsu.ru, natas@math.rsu.ru, senina@math.rsu.ru

2Mechanical and Mathematical Faculty, Rostov State University, Zorge ul. 5, Rostov-na-Dony 344090, Russia

3Ecologie des populations et communautęs, Institut national agronomique Paris-Grignon, 16, rue Claude Bernard, 75231 Paris cedex 05, France

e-mail: arditi@inapg@inra.fr

The authors present an approach for explicit modeling of spatio-temporal dynamics of predator-prey community. This approach is based on a reaction-diffusion-advection PDE system. Local kinetics of population is determined by logistic reproduction function of prey, constant natural mortality of predator and Holling trophic function. Searching behavior of predator is described by the advective term in predator balance equation assuming the predator acceleration to be proportional to the prey density gradient. The model was studied with zero-flux boundary conditions. The influence of predator searching activity on the community dynamics, in particular, on the emergence of spatial heterogeneity, has been investigated by linear analysis and numerical simulations. It has been shown how searching activity may effect the persistence of species, stabilizing predator-prey interactions at very low level of pest density. It has been demonstrated that obtaining of such dynamic regimes does not require the use of complex trophic functions.