Journal of General Biology

Vol. 63, No. 2, 2002

A fecundity to mortality ratio, population size variability and the chance for a mammal species to be listed on the Red List L. V. Polishchuk 99

The species pool hypothesis: the necessity to shift emphasis V. V. Akatov, S. G. Chefranov, T. V. Akatova 112

Structure of coadaptive complex of forest entomophilous plants with broad spectrum of pollinators G. M. Diussky, N. V. Lavrova, K. P. Gla:unova 122

Explicit model for searching behavior of predator Yu. V. Tyutyunov, N. Yu. Sapoukhina, I. N. Semna, R. Arditi 137

Chaos and order in plankton dynamics. Complex behavior of a simple model A. B. Medvinsky. I. A. Tikhonova, S. V. Petrovskii, Horst Malchow, Ezio Venturino 149

Chemical interactions between planktonic crustaceans E. S. Zadereev 159

Revolution in megataxonomy: prerequisites and results D. V. Leontjev, A. Yu. Akulov 168

Chronicle

IX School on Theoretic Morphology of Plants: Types of similarity and principles of homologation in plant morphology A. K. Timonin, A. A. Oskolsky

On the book of N.K. Khristoforova "Basis of ecology". Handbook for biological and ecological faculties of the universities G. S. Rozenherg

The Species Pool Hypothesis: the Necessity to Shift Emphasis V. V. Akatov, S. G. Chefranov, T. V. Akatova

Maykop State Technological Institute, Pervomayskaya ul. 191, Maykop 385000, Russia

e-mail: mgti@maykop.ru

Caucasian Biosphere Natural Reserve, Sovetskaya ul. 187, Maykop 385000, Russia

The species pool of a biological community is determined as a group of species that inhabit some area and potentially can be included in a given community. The species pool hypothesis, i.e. the assumption that the size of species pool strongly influences species richness of local community can be confirmed if there is positive linear relationship between these two variables. The results of hypothesis testing however are not obvious. For example, correlation between local richness and species pool size can be caused by their dependence on the third variable - capacity of environment. It seems that in case of decreasing area occupied by local community the environmental conditions become more important than species pool size. If that is true, the influence of species pool on local species richness is not significant. However one can estimate the degree of unsaturation of species pool on the basis of relationships between the number of species in small locations occupied by similar local communities and their species pool. We think, that study of local and regional species richness should shift the emphasis - from the analysis of species pool influence on local community richness to the estimation of historical, ecological and anthropogenic factors in variation of species pool size. The local species richness should be considered rather as a tool (allowing to compare the species capacity of biological communities), than as an object of such study.

Structure of Coadaptive Complex of Forest Enthomophylous Plants With Broad Spectrum of Pollinators

G. . Diussky, N. V. Lavrova, K. P. Glazunova

Dep. of Theory of Evolution and Dep. of Botany, Biological Faculty, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow University, Moscow 9899, Russia

e-mail: dlussky@dlyss.msk.ru

Pollinators of common forest entomophylous plants were studied at 1982-1985 near Zvenigorod biological station (Moscow region) and at 1989-1993 near Torma (Jogeva maakond, Estonia). The comparative analysis of spectra of pollinators has allowed to distinguish five groups (subcomplexes) of plants characterized by dominance of different groups of pollinators: myiophylous (flies from superfamily Muscoidea dominate), syrphidophylous (Hies from family Syrphidae dominate), nonspecialized melittophylous (Apoidea, mainly bumblebees, dominate), psychophylous (butterflies dominate), and cantharophylous (beetles dominate). The belonging of plants to concrete subcomplex is determined by the morphology of flowers and inflorescences, but in some cases habitat and time of blooming are also important. From year to year the composition of pollinators of the same plant species varies because of change in abundance of different groups of pollinators. However for long term these fluctuations are leveled off. External reproductive isolation of plants of myiophylous subcomplex is achieved mainly by spatial (ecological) and time (defferent time of flowering) isolations. However when two species of the same subcomplex grow together and their flowering time strongly overlap, there are some distinction in their pollinators reducing competition for pollinators.

Explicit Model for Searching Behavior of Predator

Yu. V. Tyutyunov12, N. Yu. Sapoukhinai2 3,1. N. Senina12, R. Arditi3

1 Department of Mathematical Methods in Economics and Ecology. Institute of Mechanics & Applied Mathematics, Rostov

State University, Stachki ul. 200/1, Rostov-na-Dony 344090, Russia s|

e-mail: ytyutyun@math.rsu.ru. natas@math.rsu.ru, senina@math.rsu.ru

2 Mechanical and Mathematical Faculty, Rostov State University, Zorge ul. 5, Rostov-na-Dony, 344090, Russia

3 Ecologie des populations ef communautes, Institut national agronomique Paris-Grig , 16, rue Claude Bernard, 75231 Paris cedex 05, France

e-mail: arditi@inapg.inra.fr

The authors present an approach for explicit modeling of spatio-temporal dynamics of predator-prey community. This approach is based on a reaction-diffusion-advection PD (prey dependent) system. Local kinetics of population is determined by logistic reproduction function of prey, constant natural mortality of predator and Holling type 2 trophic function. Searching behavior of predator is described by the advective term in predator balance equation assuming the predator acceleration to be proportional to the prey density gradient. The model was studied with zero-flux boundary conditions. The influence of predator searching activity on the community dynamics, in particular, on the emergence of spatial heterogeneity, has been investigated by linear analysis and numerical simulations. It has been shown how searching activity may effect the persistence of species, stabilizing predator-prey interactions at very low level of pest density. It has been demonstrated that obtaining of such dynamic regimes does not require the use of complex trophic functions.

CHAOS AND ORDER IN PLANKTON DYNAMICS. COMPLEX BEHAVIOR OF A SIMPLE MODEL

Alexander B. Medvinsky, Irene A. Tikhonova, Sergey V. Petrovskii*, Horst Malchow*, Ezio Venturino**

*Institute for Theoretical & Experimental Biophysics, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 Russia

e-mail: medvinsky@venus.iteb.serpukhov.su

**Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 23 Krasikova str., Moscow, 117218 Russia

*Institute fur Umweltsystemforshung, Artilleriestr. 34, Osnabruck, Germany

**Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Torino. C. so. Duca degliAbruzz.i 24, 10129 Torino, Italy

The role of the diffusive interaction between fish-populated and fish-free habitats in a patchy environment in plankton pattern formation is studied by means of a minimal reaction-diffusion model of the nutrient-plankton- fish food chain. It is shown that such interaction can give rise to spatio-temporal plankton patterns. The fractal dimension of the patterns is shown dependent on the fish predation rate. The spatially averaged plankton dynamics depending on both fish predation rate and distance between fish-populated habitats can exhibit chaotic and regular behavior. The chaotic plankton dynamics is characteristic of a wide parameter range.

Chemical Interactions Between Planktonic Crustaceans

E. S. Zadereev

Institute of Biophysics, Russian Academy of Science. Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia

e-mail: egor@ibp.ru

Three levels of chemical communications involved plankton Crustacea are considered: 1) Influence of zooplankton excretion on phytoplankton; 2) Influence of zooplankton excretion on the individuals of the same or other species of the same trophic level; 3) Influence of chemical cues released by predatory zooplankton and fish on herbivorous zooplankton. The data on the influence of excreted cues on some physiological (growth, reproduction, feeding, etc.) and behavioural (vertical and horizontal migrations) characters of planktonic crustaceans are presented. Ecological role and chemistry cues responsible for the interactions of different trophic levels can be different. It is considered that chemical communications in aquatic ecosystems can be provided with: 1) Species-specific cues that strictly influence particular biological functions (communication system of feromone type); 2) Non-specific cues that strictly influence particular functions (system of regulator, that act at the whole ecosystem as the hormonal system of an organism). 3) Non-specific substances with broad (non- specidic) influence - toxic substances of "biocondition substances" according to classification of Novikov and Kharlamova (2000).

Revolution in Megataxonomy: Prerequisites and Results

D. V. Leontjev, A. Yu. Akulov

Kharkov National University, Svobody pi., Kharkov 61077, Ukraine

e-mail: Alexander.Yu.Akulov@univer.kharkov.ua

Main stages of development of megataxonomy (the science of organic world dividing into large taxa) are considered. Prerequisites and first results of "revolution in megataxonomy" (cardinal reorganization during last years) are analyzed. Matter of "revolution" is considered: changing of main megataxonomic criteria from morpho-physiological to cytological and genetical ones. Advantages of classifications of organic world based on cytological and genetical criteria, and main arguments of their opponents are discussed. Some taxonomic changes based on published data are suggested: the kingdom Lamellitubulicristata (lamellicristate and tubulicristate eukaryots) is created, Cryptophyta, Prymnesiophyta, Percolozoa and Actinozoa are risen up to the kingdom rank. Original megasystem of dominion Eukaryota is build up, including 2 subdominions (Hypochondria and Epichondria), 3 superkingdoms (Hypocrystata. Discocrystata and Lamellitubulicristata) and 14 kingdoms (Archaeomonadobiontes, Microsporobiontes, Euglenobiontes, Percolobiontes, Myxobiontes, Actinobiontes, Alveolobiontes, Chromobiontes, Prymnesiobiontes, Cryptobiontes, Rhodobiontes, Chlorobiontes, Mycobiontes and Zoobiontes). Characters of these taxa and an outline of their evolutionary connections based on published data are provided.