Journal of General Biology

Volume 62 (2001). Number 1

(Indexed in "Current Contents")

Polishchuk L.V., Tseitlin V.B. Body mass, population density and offspring number in mammals

Romanovsky Yu.E. Optimal time to maturity and constraints on juvenile survival in mammals

Voronov D.A. Comparative embryology of nematodes and the law of embryo similarity

Chernyshov A.V., Isaeva V.V., Presnov E.V. The comparative analysis of topological patterns in metazoa

Dlussky G.M., Lavrova N.V. Comparison of imaginal diets of some syrphidas (Diptera) species

Ignat'ev D.A., Sukhova G.S., Sukhov V.P. The analysis of changes in heart rate and temperature of ground squirrel Citellus undulatus in various physiological states

Baskin L.M., Skogland T. Vigilance and alertness of reindeer: populations differences


Krasnoshchekov G.P., Rozenberg G.S. On book of N.N.Vorontsov "Development of evolution ideas in biology"

Tatarinov L.P. On book of N.N.Vorontsov "Development of evolution ideas in biology"

Mirkin B.M., Naumova L.G. Review on the special section of "Journal of science about vegetation"


Optimal time to maturity and constraints on juvenile survival in mammals

Department of General Ecology, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University,

Moscow 119899, Russia

Although the life history evolution of small-and large-bodied mammals seems to be governed by different factors, the both shows relative neonate size and juvenile survival to be slightly dependent on body mass. I propose a hypothesis that natural selection simultaneously maximizes a time to maturity (minimizes somatic growth rate) and a number of newborn survived to reproduction. In this case optimal juvenile survival of large-bodied mammals must be close to e- and that of small-bodied ~ e-(1+), where is the slope of the regression of log annual fecundity on log annual juvenile mortality. Analysis of vital characters for 71 mammal species revealed the slope to be close to unity. As a result frequency distribution of log juvenile survival shows bimodality which coincides well with predicted optimal survival for large- and small-bodies species. It is shown that the relative neonate size can be directly proportional to the juvenile survival and inversely proportional to the lifetime offspring production irrespective of mortality factors.

G.M.Dlussky, N.V.Lavrova

Comparison of imaginal diets of some syrphidas (Diptera) species

Department of Evolution Theory, Biological Faculty, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow University, Vorob'evy Gory, 119899 Moscow, Russia

The full amount and species composition of pollen from intestines of 11 species of Syrphidae (Arctophila fulva, Eristalis arbustorum, E.nemorum, E.pertinax, Helophilus pendulus, Myiatropa florea, Rhingia campestris, Sericomyia silentis, Syrphus baltheatus, S.ribessii and S.vitripennis), collected at the some place (Torma, Jogeva distr., Estonia) and at the some time (18-20 Juli 1989) have been studied. Maximum number of pollen grains is different fly species varied from 67800 (Rh. campestris) up to 240700 (S. silentis) grains, and average number from 25560 (Rh. campestris) up to 115880 (E. pertinax) grains. Maximum volume of pollen in different fly species varied from 1,5 (S. ribesii) up to 23,6 (S. baltheatus) mm3, and average volume from 0,36 up to 7,0 mm3 (the same species). The difference in a imaginal diets of Syrphidae are found, and the degree of differences does not correlate with a degree taxonomic of affinity of species. The difference in strategy of a feeding behavior of two Syrphus species, that have similar diet, are marked: in intestines of 80% specimens of S.ribesii we found pollen grains of less that 7 plant species, whereas intestines of more than 88% specimens of S.vitripennis contained more than 8 species of grains. Distinction in alimentary preferences of different species of flies can not be explained neither particularities of their morphology, nor their color preferences.

L.M.Baskin1 and T.Skogland2

Vigilance and alertness of reindeer: populations differences

1A.N.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Science, Leninsky prospect 33, Moscow 117071, Russia;

2Norvegian Institute for Nature Research, Tungasletta 2, N-7005, Trondheim, Norway

Distances of detection and flight away of reindeer disturbed by approaching human on foot were used to compare reindeer alertness and vigilance. Population differences depended on genetic origin (wild, feral, and tame reindeer) and hunting. No correlations of vigilance and alertness were found with presence of predators, sex composition of herds, and presence of newborns in herd. Herd size affecting jointly with genetic origin or hunting had negative correlation with alertness.

A.V.Chernyshov, V.V.Isaeva, E.V.Presnov

The comparative analysis of topological patterns in metazoa

Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Palchevskogo ul.17, Vladivostok 690041, Russia;

Ear East State University, Vladivostok 690000, Russia;

Besor Experimental Station, the Volcani Center, 85400 Israel

Topological patterns in Metazoa , using previously elaborated methodology with employment of the genus of the surface (p) as topological invariant are considered. The term <density of the genus of the surface> is introduced. In sponges and in a lesser degree among Cnidaria and Ctenophoria an increase of genus p up to indefinite high values and the shaping of topologically complicated quasifractal systems (irrigation system in sponges and gastro-vascular system in Radiata) are evident. In most Bilateria a stable topological pattern with through digestive tube is formed and subsequent topological complications of other systems may occur. Complicated topological patterns increasing the genus of the surface are evolved on the base of quasifractal systems: gut pockets in turbellaria, tracheal system in arthropods, bronchial system in birds, gills in bivalve mollusks, etc. Peculiarities of ordered and disordered topological patterns as well as topological origin of the increase of the genus of the surface are considered.

D.A.Ignat'ev1, G.S.Sukhova2, V.P.Sukhov2

The analysis of changes in heart rate and temperature of ground squirrel Citellus undulatus in various physiological states

1Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Science, Pustchino, Moscow region 142292, Russia

2Dep. Physiology of Human Being and Animals, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob'evy Gory, Moscow 119899, Russia

Heart rate (HR) of ground squirrel C.undulatus was studied in dependence of season, level of activity, physiological state and air temperature (T). In summer HR varies from 110-130 beat/min in sleep up to 420 beat/min at flight from danger. During winter hibernation HP was minimal (3-5 beat/min) at T 1-4oC, the increase in T induced the growth of HP in correspondence to the Arrenius van Hoff law. The temperature of the body in hibernation exceeded T on 1,5-3oC. The time of getting off the hibernation increased with the decrease in T (6-7 hours at 1oC and 2,5-3 hours at +18oC). At phase of increased thermogenesis during arousal heart temperature exceeded rectal one on 10-12oC and heart rate run up to 360-420 beat/min i.e. 2-3 time higher than in active state. The decrease in T stimulated the increase in HP up to 3,8 in winter and 5,3 beat/min/oC in summer. The highest values of Q10 for HP were reveled at the beginning of hibernation (15-20) and at the beginning of arousal (6-7), in other periods Q10 was similar to the normal biological values (2-2,5). Thus, at the beginning of transitional periods changes of HP were determined mainly by endogenic mechanisms that inhibited myocardium at the beginning of hibernation and activated in arousal. Some mechanisms of coordination between activities of heart and other systems of organism are considered. The features of hit exchange providing the hibernation in wide range of T are discussed.

L.V.Polishchuk, V.B.Tseitlin

Body mass, population density and offspring number in mammals

Dep. General Ecology, Biological Faculty, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119899, Russia; e-mail:

Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117851, Russia

The negative relationship between population density and body mass with the body mass exponent of 0.75 implies that the energy flow through populations of small- and large-bodied species is the same, for individual metabolism scales to body mass raised to the power of +0.75. This relationship called the energetic equivalent rule, has often been observed for mammal species assemblages studied at regional scale. Here we suggested a demography-based mechanism that may generate it. Having analyzed about 130 literature sources, mostly in Russian, we collected demography and body-mass data for 88 mammalian species from the territory and coastal waters of the former Soviet Union. The data were used to construct a number of interspecific relationships. It is shown that (1) the number of offspring per lifetime is approximately inversely proportional to the relative mass at birth (the exponent is not significantly different from 1), (2) the average lifespan is proportional to body mass to the 0.25 power, (3) body mass at birth is proportional to the adult body mass. We develop a simple to demonstrate that relations (1) to (3) entail the energetic equivalence rule. The theory also allows us to explain violation of this rule (in non-flying birds, for example) namely, to predict the exponent of relation (1) for any given exponent of the relation between population density and body mass. This is possible because relation (2) and (3) are likely to more universally hold than relation (1). Finally, since natural selection acts on individual traits rather than on population-level ones such as population density, the theory opens up the way to an evolutionary explanation for the energetic equivalence rule.

Comparative embryology of nematodes and the law of embryo similarity


Institute for Problems of Information Transmission, Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, Moscow 101447, Russia.


Two types of embryonic development can be distinguished within nematodes, with a variable (Enoplia) or invariant (remaining species) cleavage. In the case of invariant cleavage, two main variants of cell lineage are presented in nematodes, with the posterior (Rhabditea) or anterior (Dorylaimia) localization of endoderm material at the two-cell stage. This classification is in a good agreement with some modern nematode taxonomy and it is supported by molecular phylogeny studies. The variable cleavage is plesiomorphic. Traditional concept of "mosaic" cleavage is not applicable for nematodes as inductive interactions and a regulation of experimental interventions are usual attributes of any mode of nematode development. The representatives of order Rhabditida have almost identical cell lineage, but at the same time they have strong interspecific differences in mechanisms of ooplasmic segregation any early inductive interactions. The diversity of geometric patterns in the early cleavage, often at the level of individual random variations, is a usual characteristic of nematodes including species with the invariant cleavage. Thus, the early stages of nematode development are evolutionary very flexible, but at the course of embryonic development similarity of different species is progressively increased up to the uniform morphogenetic stages. The dynamics of variation in nematode development contradict to the von Baer's law but are in an agreement with the modern "hourglass model" (Duboul, 1994; Raff, 1986).